Making Curriculum Pop


As literacy specialists, we were eager to discover ways in which we could integrate the moving image into a unit of study. We recognized that “being literate in contemporary society means being active, critical and creative users not only of print and spoken language but also of the visual language of film and television, commercial and political advertising, photography, and more…” (NCTE/IRA Standards, 1996). With this standard in mind, we felt responsible for identifying ways in which we could provide students with opportunities to read and analyze a variety of texts.

The framework of our unit was constructed in response to the presentations and readings for this course. Each activity was designed to teach students how they could use the moving image to deepen their understanding of a time period and to critically reflect on the messages that are conveyed through different texts. As a group, we recognized the power of visual images and how they can be used to elicit an emotional response from students. We decided to begin our unit with an imovie about the Holocaust so that students could be exposed to the devastating effects of the Nazi movement through visual images, written text, and music. Based on the seminars, we learned the importance of reaching different types of learners and finding ways to support students through differentiated instruction. The imovie was one way in which we could reach students who were more visual or rhythmic learners (

As the unit progressed, we discussed the need of tracking the learning process. To accomplish this goal, we created webs using the Kidspiration program. Webbing ideas over time can demonstrate how a student’s thought process expands. The web could serve as a form of assessment and a tool to plan instruction. In addition, this type of text could reach learners who are more logical/mathematical or visual. Kist (2005) suggested in his book, New Literacies in Action: Teaching and Learning in Multiple Media, that students need to use “multiple text forms” to represent their ideas (p. 130). The web design was one way in which students could share their knowledge with others and express their ideas in an organized manner.

The shared reading activity of The Sneetches was inspired by Napoleon Kinght’s presentation. We found that using the moving image could motivate students to engage in the learning process. In Napoleon’s seminar, he provided graphic organizers to support students during the viewing. Following this model, we created graphic organizers to help students critically analyze and reflect on The Sneetches. Further, we recognized the effect of Napoleon’s use of non-traditional assessment practices and decided to use a more creative form of evaluation.

Following this activity, we felt that it would be important to bring in actual accounts of survivors. In doing so, we could convey to students the power behind one voice and the idea of “never forget.” We decided to incorporate podcasts so that students could listen to the voices of survivors and make connections to the other texts they explored. Through this activity, students would learn how multiple texts can be used together to develop more complex ideas about the Holocaust.

As we neared the end of the unit, we decided to explore activities that would lead to social action. We created a Media Circle activity in response to one of the presentations. Pam Goble introduced the format of media circles and discussed the benefits of using these types of activities in the classroom. We were drawn to the collaborative nature of Media Circles and the idea of viewing a film through a particular lens. As a result, we created a modified version of the media circle roles and explored films that were connected to the Holocaust theme. “Out of this collaborative atmosphere may come a greater understanding of tolerance for some students….a strengthened collective voice and an ability to reach out and communicate beyond the boundaries of the classroom” (Kist, 2005, p. 129-130). Our goal was to inspire students to share their ideas that were generated in response to the movie, Paperclips and work together to plan and implement social action projects.

In designing our final project for Teach, Think, Play, we thought about the various media applications that were highlight in the presentations and readings. We wanted to create something that was applicable to what we were studying in our literacy specialist program and that we could use one day in our classrooms. Inspired by ideas from a reading unit of study for 5th grade, we decided to create a project to teach students about the Holocaust using various forms of media. Our project’s goal is to have our students understand the historical time during which the Holocaust took place. We want them to understand how difficult a time was for the Jewish people. They were surrounded by hatred and had to battle to live every day. Using an I-movie, literacy circles, shared reading, and webs we are giving an in depth media literacy study about the Holocaust. From the project, students should see the need to never forget about the Holocaust and remember the emotions and passion that emerged from this project. These feelings will help them to design social action projects about the genocides that are taking place today. They will learn how to be advocates for humanity and proper treatment of all people, regardless of race, ethnicity or religion.

• Computer with Internet access
• LCD projector
• Computers with imovie or photo story for students to use
• Kidspiration webs
• Clip from the movie Paperclips
• Handouts (Graphic Organizers)

This unit would work best in an upper grade elementary classroom that can devote approximately four weeks to studying the Holocaust. Our group imagined it in the types of classrooms we work in where a significant amount of time is placed aside for a daily reading workshop. The backbone of this unit is a reading unit of study based on learning about the Holocaust to inspire social action and tolerance. Students will be immersed in book clubs with similar level readers to discuss their Holocaust texts. Each day will entail either a reading minilesson or an activity from this project. During the workshop time the students will independently read, discuss their texts in their book clubs, or discuss our media activities. Read alouds of picture books will also be woven throughout this unit and connect to their book club reading and the media activities. Throughout the unit the students will have graphic organizers to keep track of their learning and reflections as well as the handouts we provide for certain activities. A major theme will be for students to make connections between their reading and the new literacy activities we have planned. Here is how you might proceed with our media activities:

1) Museum walk- imovie (available on youtube) containing photographs, quotes, testimonials, etc.
a. This will serve as an introduction to unit by allowing the students to get their minds ready and thinking about the Holocaust and also allowing us to see their initial reactions and thinking.

2) Inspiration/Kidspiration- students will keep track of what they are learning using a web.

3) Shared Reading of The Sneetches by Dr. Seuss (YouTube video) (
a. Introduction to themes of the Holocaust through the use of an allegory
b. Students will discuss themes from the video and find connections to the themes of the Holocaust (ie conformity, isolation, superiority)

4) Podcast Listening Activity- Holocaust Survivor Stories (Find attached description of activity and handout)
a. Set up like a read aloud, students will listen to podcasts from The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum First Person Podcast Series
b. They will fill out a handout and discuss their reactions to these incredible stories as a club.
c. The students will compare these podcast testimonials to the stories they are reading. For example, what messages are being conveyed to the reader in each text?

5) Paper Clips movie watching experience with Media Circles
a. Students will watch Paper Clips in parts and meet in their book clubs with a modified version of Pam Goble’s media circle handouts
b. Students will take on a different role each time they watch a new section. The different roles include: connector, questioner, scene master, and note taker. Because it is a documentary and there are four students in each club we have modified the activity to contain four key roles to be involved in this movie watching experience.

Before you implement the unit:
• What do I want my students to get out of this unit?
• What are the main objectives/goals of this unit?
• Do I have the administrator’s permission to show semi-graphic pictures?
• Are the parents aware of the content in this unit?
• Do I have all the necessary technology equipment needed?
• Have I signed up to have all the necessary technology equipment?

During the unit:
• Are my students meeting my objectives/goals?
• Am I presenting too much heavy information for my students?
• Are my students uncomfortable with the material/information I have been presenting them?
• Am I teaching this information in a way that my students understand?
• Do I need to go back and re-teach any content?
• Am I answering all the questions my students have thoroughly?
• Is my assessment giving my accurate information about what my student’s are/are not learning?

After the unit:
• Do my students have a better understanding of the Holocaust and what it consisted of?
• Did my students meet my objectives/goals?
• Do my students understand what genocide is and why it is bad?
• Did my students choose topics that are relevant to this unit of study?
• Did my students make a digital story that conveys a message about a topic of their choice?

The Sneetches: A Shared Reading Experience
*All charts for this section can be found in the PDF file attach to the unit


Overview: In this section, students will identify themes and engage in a critical reading of The Sneetches. They will make connections between this text and others that they explored during the museum walk. Students will record their ideas on graphic organizers and discuss their thought process in a whole group setting. As a culminating project, students will demonstrate their learning by writing a letter to the creator of the text.

- Critical Reading and Reflection
- Inference
- Interpretation
- Synthesis
- Questioning
- Written Response
- Verbalizing Ideas

Suggested Plan:

Activity 1: For the first viewing, students will watch The Sneetches without recording their thoughts. Prompt them to notice the different groups that are presented in the film and how they are depicted.

Activity 2: Comparing Characters and Observing Interactions. Students will watch The Sneetches and record their observations on a graphic organizer. They will note physical and internal character traits as well as actions and behaviors. After, they will record what they learned from analyzing the interactions between two groups of characters.

Activity 3: Connecting The Sneetches to the Holocaust. Students will identify themes from The Sneetches and connect them to the events in the Holocaust.

Activity 4: A Critical Reading. Students will watch The Sneetches for a third time and discover the power, positioning, and perspective of the text.

Activity 5: Assessment/Extension of the Shared Reading Experience. Students will write a letter to the creator of the text. They will share connections that they made between The Sneetches and the Holocaust, a critical analysis of the text, and explanation of what they learned and themes they discovered, questions that they are continuing to explore, and scenes that were especially meaningful to them.


*All charts for this section can be found in the PDF file attach to the unit

Directions: You will be a scene investigator! Record what you notice about the two different groups of Sneetches. Then, write three things you learned about the characters.

*All charts for this section can be found in the PDF file attach to the unit

Directions: Identify three big themes that were presented in The Sneetches and give an example from the movie to support your idea. Explain how this theme is connected to the events in the Holocaust.

*All charts for this section can be found in the PDF file attach to the unit

Directions: Be a detective! Carefully examine the text, The Sneetches, and discover the power, positioning, and perspective behind the words and images.


Write a letter to the creator of this text and include at least 4 out of the 6 components:
a) (REQUIRED) Connections you’ve made between The Sneetches and The Holocaust
b) A critical analysis of this text (Hint: Use the handout on Power, Positioning, and Perspective)
c) An explanation of what you’ve learned from viewing this text.
d) Discuss the themes that you discovered and provide supporting evidence from the text (i.e. scenes)
e) Questions that you had as you watched the film and questions you are still exploring
f) Scenes from this movie that resonated with you. (What parts were most powerful and why? Which scenes elicited an emotional response? What personal connections did you make to this text?)

Podcast Listening Activity

Listening to podcasts of Holocaust survivor accounts and comparing what we hear and feel to what we’ve been reading in our Holocaust text.

• Set up activity to how you would a read aloud. Introduce podcast by giving background knowledge on the account and then provide guidance on what students should be listening for as you pass out organizer. Attached are transcripts of two of the podcasts. If you feel students need to read along to help them understand you could hand out these transcripts (note: transcripts are high level reading).

Things to note as you listen:
• What am I feeling?
• What am I picturing?
• What connections can I make to other texts we have been reading?
• What big messages do I want to hold on to?

-During the podcast pause a couple of times while listening to allow students to stop and jot on their organizers. Remind them that they don’t have to fill in every box each time they jot.

-After listening to the podcast, have students turn and talk to their clubs to share and expand on their thoughts.

-Discuss as a class. What are their thoughts? What connections are they making? Why are these connections important to hold onto?

Podcast Information:

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum First Person Podcast Series
• Helen Goldkind: Arrival at Auschwitz:
• Louise Lawrence-Israels: A Family’s Efforts to Create a Normal Life While in Hiding:
• Helen Luksenburg: Survival in the Camps:

Holocaust Survivor Podcast Activity
*All charts for this section can be found in the PDF file attach to the unit


HELEN GOLDKIND: "I don't know how many days it was. Finally we got to Auschwitz and they didn't open up these cattle cars, but we wanted to get out of them because it was chaotic. Everything was a mess."

NARRATOR: Over sixty years after the Holocaust, hatred, anti-Semitism, and genocide still threaten our world. The life stories of Holocaust survivors transcend the decades and remind us of the constant need to be vigilant citizens and to stop injustice, prejudice, and hatred wherever and whenever they occur.
This podcast series presents excerpts of interviews with Holocaust survivors from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum’s public program, First Person — Conversations with Holocaust Survivors.
In today’s episode, Helen Goldkind, talks with program host Bill Benson about her deportation and arrival at Auschwitz.

BILL BENSON: If you can, Helen, tell us about the trip to Auschwitz, what that trip was like, and what happened once you got there.

HELEN GOLDKIND: Well, they gave us a bucket of water and there were lots of people in that cattle car. I don’t know how many because I didn’t count them.

BILL BENSON: But it was one bucket of water for the car.

HELEN GOLDKIND: One bucket of water. And there were old people, children were crying and all the people were fainting. There was hardly a place to sit down. It was chaotic. My grandparents were coming with us in the same cattle car and my mother worried over her parents, so she would say to my older sister that when we get on the farm, she should take care of them.

You know, everybody had a job to do and we should take care of each other. That was my mother’s wish. So I don’t know how many days it was, we finally got to Auschwitz and it was still daylight and they didn’t open up these cattle cars, but we wanted to get out of them, because it was chaotic. People were…well, everything was a mess.

Well, it got darker, but as soon as we stopped with these cattle cars, we smelled a terrible smell. We figured that smell shouldn’t be on a farm. It smelled like they were burning flesh, but we figured, “Okay, they’ll open up the doors, we’ll look around, we’ll see what’s happening.”

So as they opened up the doors and they say, “Raus! Raus!” you know, they were screaming, “Get out! Get out!” and we had to take whatever, you know, this little suitcase and throw it in a ditch, and so we did that. And my grandfather came with the Torah scrolls and he wouldn’t think of parting with the Torah scrolls because, first of all, it’s a sin to throw it down.

And my mother looked around and all of a sudden, she sees that they’re beating him up. They were telling him to throw the Torah scrolls in the ditch.

BILL BENSON: Onto the pile of the luggage in the ditch.

HELEN GOLDKIND: Yes, and he said to my mother, “They don’t understand what I’m trying to tell them, that it’s a sin, it’s a sin!” Well, these monsters…he didn’t want to throw the Torah scrolls down and he was holding onto them and so these monsters were beating him; he fell with the Torah scrolls. [Crying]

BILL BENSON: And, Helen, you were there. You saw this.

HELEN GOLDKIND: I saw this with my eyes. That’s why it’s so difficult for me. And they were screaming. My mother looked fairly young, but she was holding on, I had a six-year-old brother, and I don’t know, accidentally, or whatever it was, I wanted to know what was happening to him and he was already on the ground and they were still hitting him there.

And my heart cried out, “Somebody help him!” you know, this is my grandfather. Nobody came to… nobody came. And then…

My mother was still holding onto my brother and he loved books. We weren’t rich, so if we ever got a present that was a book…and he was holding on to one book and my mother saw what happened to my grandfather. She was afraid that they were going to also beat him up, so she was begging him to throw that book into the ditch and he wouldn’t do that.

Then she was negotiating it with him. Finally he took the book and gave it to my mother and he was watching my mother throwing that book into that ditch and she just cried. And then all of a sudden, one of those monsters came and they pulled my brother away from my mother and he cried.

And my mother heard him, and she ran after him, and she was telling those monsters that he’s only six years old, he will not survive without me. And they were beating her up and she fell and they kicked her around with those big boots.

And finally, you know, when they saw she had difficulties getting up, they pushed her to the left and she went with my brother. Many times, when I think about it, I say maybe if she wouldn’t run after, maybe she would survive because she was fairly young. In the other hand, I say to myself, you know, my little brother didn’t go to his death crying.

BILL BENSON: She was there with him.

HELEN GOLDKIND: She was there with him, and knowing my mother, she probably comforted more of these kids that were crying. Then that was the last I saw my mother.

*United States Holocaust MemorialMuseum


“It wasn’t a physical pain, it was a moral pain. You lost all your dignity, all your pride. You were branded like an animal, and I became just a number.”

NARRATOR: Over sixty years after the Holocaust, hatred, antisemitism, and genocide still threaten our world. The life stories of Holocaust survivors transcend the decades and remind us of the constant need to be vigilant citizens and to stop injustice, prejudice, and hatred wherever and whenever they occur.

This podcast series presents excerpts of interviews with Holocaust survivors from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum’s public program, First Person— Conversations with Holocaust Survivors.

In today’s episode Helen Luksenburg talks with host Bill Benson about life in the Gleiwitz concentration camp.

HELEN LUKSENBURG: We worked 12 hours a day, one Sunday every third week, we had free, because in order that one shift would be off, Sunday we had to work 12 hours over the weekend, because actually we worked 8 hours, but over the weekend we were working 12 hours in order for one shift (there were three shifts) to be able to have a Sunday off every third week. So what did you do? You started….

And you know, the camaraderie was great and solidarity and one Sunday we had some very talented young women who were, one was an opera singer and she still, in the beginning, had clothes from home. She had these beautiful Chinese robes and she was singing the opera. One was playing the mandolin. We tried to keep up our spirits.

BILL BENSON: On your one day off every third Sunday.

HELEN LUKSENBURG: That’s right. And what we were talking mostly, we were reminiscent about food. My dream was to have a glass of tea with lemon, would you believe it? That was my dream. And we were talking what our mothers were cooking and what we were eating—we were dreaming. Never was anything enough.

BILL BENSON: Helen, this factory, the production of soot was dangerous, it was hard and it was incredibly filthy work that you were doing.

HELEN LUKSENBURG: Yes, we had to have…they gave us good oil to wash our eyes…

BILL BENSON: To wash the soot out of your eyes.

HELEN LUKSENBURG: Yes. I didn’t need mascara at the time, and I didn’t have it. And good soap they gave us, because every day we had to take a shower. We came back and we were black. So after that, we were working…

BILL BENSON: One other question for you, Helen, when you went to Gleiwitz, the only thing you had, if I remember correctly, from your parents, you had a nightgown of your mother’s.


BILL BENSON: That was the only thing you had.

HELEN LUKSENBURG: Yes, because my mother gave me…I always was wearing pajamas and my mother gave me her flannel nightgown and the first night I wore it in the temporary camp. When I got up, in the seams were lice, because we slept…they were infested, the beds. We didn’t have mattresses, it was straw. Right away we were infested with, I think previously it was for sick people were there and we came and we slept on the same beds.

BILL BENSON: Helen, working as slave labor under these circumstances, it would turn far worse than that in 1944.

HELEN LUKSENBURG: No, because in the beginning was a labor camp and we still had our own clothes and it was not as strict. It wasn’t paradise, it wasn’t a day camp [laughs] away from home, even. But it was livable more. A year later, the SS took over, they took away all our civilian clothes, they issued the stripes and was not made from wool or cotton, that was ersatz, artificial.

And we had to work even harder and they tattoo us. Can you imagine, to all the girls (I didn’t see the men; the men were in a separate camp), we had to stay completely naked like God created us to be tattooed on the left arm. And it wasn’t a physical pain, it was a moral pain. You lost all your dignity, all your pride, you were branded like an animal, and I became just a number, 79139.

*United States Holocaust MemorialMuseum

Paper Clips Media Circle Activity

Movie Information: Documentary, Rated G, 1 hour 27 minutes
This movie is documentary of an 8th grade class at Whitwell Middle School in rural Tennessee. In the midst of studying the Holocaust the students decide they want to conceptualize the number six million, the number of Jewish people killed in the Holocaust. The students begin an incredible social action project that allows them to meet Holocaust survivors, learn about tolerance, and touch the lives of millions of people who respond to their project by donating paper clips.

• Have movie set up and plan to show the first section. This is dependent on how you want to schedule the movie in your classroom for discussion (example: four 20 minute segments)
• Before showing movie go through media circle activity by modeling each role. Use the movie as a hypothetical, here are examples…

Connector: “If I were the connector I may find that this movie connects to the Number of the Stars. Here is why….” (Write it on paper just like students will be doing).

Questioner: “Let’s say I am the questioner. I am going to watch the movie with a questioning eye. Maybe I am going to write down a question, such as ‘Why do they chose paper clips to collect?’”

Scene Master: “Now I am the scene master. I am going to be watching for these scenes that seem so important that I want to jot them down. Just a quick jot, you don’t have to write down to whole scene. When you discuss them later, be ready to explain why you chose the scene that you did. Was it powerful? Did it change your feeling about something? Is there a message you want to hold onto? Let’s say I chose a scene that shows the students listening to a Holocaust survivor. I would write that and then say why. I chose this scene because their feelings about the Holocaust became more real when they listened to the survivor speak. ”

Recorder: “The recorder is not let off the hook during the movie. Pay close attention and think across all the roles so you have an idea of what you will be discussing in your club conversation. Once you meet, let’s say your club discusses why they decided to collect paper clips. Your job is to record the important points your club discusses so you can then share what you discussed with the class.”

Remind students that as they are viewing they are going to be taking notes on their roles.
• Play movie until first section over. Give them time to write down what they didn’t get to while watching the movie.
• Have students gather with their fellow roles (all connectors meet, all questioners meet, etc.) to discuss their roles and see if they can gather more information and gain deeper understandings from one another.
• Students meet in their clubs and share out and discuss each role.
• Share as a class some of the big ideas/important each club discussed.

Media Circles: Paper Clips
*All charts for this section can be found in the PDF file attach to the unit


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Replies to This Discussion

Thank you for an amazing project that will be used with a lot of students all over the world.
You mention a reading unit of study in the Rationale that was the inspiration for this project. Could you share the print materials that are in that unit? I'm trying to expand our library holdings on the Holocaust and am particularly interested in materials for students in the upper elementary.

Dear Wynne, Blair, Daniella and Callie,

Thank you for posting such an in-depth curriculum aimed to expose students to the event of the Holocaust, its contextual histories and a critical introduction to ideas and situations of genocide. As Anne commented, I think a true testament to the efficacy of the worldview you adopted for this curriculum is that it can be used in classrooms worldwide to introduce, provoke and engage learnings about these issues with younger students.

Your usage of visual media, particularly “The Sneetches”, was very affecting for me. I spent a significant portion of my after-school elementary and middle school years in hebrew school. My synagogue was engaged in events that addressed the Holocaust with students, such as an organized synagogue-community screening of "Schindler’s List". It occurred to me in reviewing “The Sneetches” that this kind of humanity-ethical programming can greatly contribute to provoking a worldview understanding of the tenet issues that can underlie an event such as the Holocaust. I agree it holds relevance to exploring complex socio-political aspects of genocide and mass murders that have occurred throughout wide geographic history, and when studied in school might serve to introduce these as well. In your "Critical Reading of The Sneetches" worksheet, I thought it was terrific that you asked students to query why someone might author such a text, as well as what would make someone feel comfortable or uncomfortable when viewing it. I believe this is key in assisting students to more deeply, importantly question contextual response and approach to these issues.

I loved your inclusion of Kidspiration webs, which are the most dynamic, exploratory and child-friendly (child-respecting) curricular diagramming I have seen. Are there similar designs you have studied or come across in other classrooms? I love how it supports and values fully every step of the child's learning process. During your Unit Assessment, I thought it was great you included time for teachers to assess learnings of students and "reteach" if necessary. This is a truly holistic way to approach student learning. I see how “check in” can hold great benefit for students through leading educators to a more informed assessment of levels of classroom learning and thus adapting lessons as necessary.

Regarding the transcripts of Holocaust Survivor podcasts, you note they are of "high level reading". This could indicate the possibility that all students in the same class may not be equally accessible to this material. To address this, I wonder if teachers might distribute the transcripts and ask children to highlight words they recognized, words they didn’t know or words that were repeated. Another idea might be to ask students to highlight all the infinitives (i.e., in Goldkind’s account: holding, crying, negotiating) they can locate within a specific account. The students' findings could culminate in a classwide visual diagramming (i.e. word bank). This could open opportunity for individual learnings to be introduced to the public classroom space, in which students study these findings and begin to construct their own understandings of the Holocaust. Through this activity, lessons of rhetoric and critical examination of semantic construction would be conveyed through their 'doctoring' of the texts.

I think your project emphasis to have children “understand the historical time during which the Holocaust took place” is crucial and excellently stated. I wonder if educators might consider introducing other marginalized groups who were targeted in Germany and persecuted during the Holocaust as well. Given your curriculum perspective is focused to broaden and connect student's understandings of the event of the Holocaust to genocides in older and contemporary history, a deeper examination of persecution at the time of the primary event studied might reinforce well this educational aim. On the homepage for A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust, it links to resources for many of the groups that were persecuted during Nazi Germany. This might be a helpful resource to consult if educators are interested in expanding their Holocaust curriculum to include other persecuted groups.

In your rationale you mention that a goal of your project is to investigate with students the meaning of "never forget". Holocaust survivor, writer and activist Elie Wiesel has been at the forefront of this mission. Under the section "Conferences", the conference of "Tomorrow's Leaders" might be an interesting resource for educators to consult. Conferences such as these explore a modern momentum in which the Holocaust and its associated genocide-awareness movements are developed through youth leaders.

Wynne, Blair, Daniella and Callie, this was such a terrific and awareness-raising exploration of curriculum for me. Thank you all again for creating such important work. Are any of you planning to apply this curriculum to your own classrooms? If so, and if you do, I would love to hear feedback concerning how portions of this unit were met and received by your students.

Wynne, Blair, Daniella and Callie,

I got to see what your project was going to be during the last class and I knew that all your work was going to make something great, but this is really fantastic. I really found the Paperclips assignment to be powerful, how did the kids respond to it?

Also, thanks for linking Kidspiration! I've been trying to remember that website for so long!



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